Cardiovascular Changes in Newborn Children of Diabetic Mother

Eric Erico

A systemic chronic metabolic disorder known as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is characterized by either defective beta cells or elevated insulin resistance. It affects everyone, from infancy through late adulthood, including newborns and children. A significant risk factor for Congenital Heart Diseases (CHDs) is gestational diabetes. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy, low maternal education, a high body mass index at conception, undiagnosed pre-gestational diabetes, inadequate antenatal care, and improper diabetes management all increase the risk. The structure and function of the fetus’ heart and the fetus-placental circulation are significantly impacted by maternal diabetes. Myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac defects are three times more common in Diabetic Mothers’ Infants (IDMs). Foetal electrocardiography and echocardiography can be used to examine the structure and function of the heart during pregnancy. Post pregnancy heart assessment can be performed with natal and post pregnancy electrocardiography and echocardiography, recognition of early atherosclerotic changes by estimating aortic intima-media thickness, and retinal vascular changes by retinal photography. Preventing diabetes before and during pregnancy is the most important factor in reducing the effects of diabetes on the unborn child. However, additional research is still needed on other risk-reducing measures like taking prescription drugs, taking nutritional supplements, or taking probiotics. The various cardiac outcomes of gestational DM on the foetus and offspring, cardiac evaluation of foetuses and IDMs, and how to alleviate the consequences of gestational DM on the offspring are discussed in this review, as are the mechanism of foetal sequels and the risk factors that increase the prevalence of CHDs in gestational DM.