A Review of the In Vivo and In Vitro Studies on Recent Advances in Particulate Matter and Nanoparticle Toxicology

Riyaz Ali*

Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to negative health effects in epidemiological and clinical studies, including an increase in cardiopulmonary disease mortality and morbidity. Even though there is evidence that PM has negative effects on health, the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that cause these effects are still poorly understood. To explain how toxicity works, there are two main approaches. One is the utilization of in vivo experimental models, which permit evaluation of various PM effects on and nervous systems. The use of various in vitro models has proven useful for examining the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the various physiological effects in greater depth. On the basis of these methods, we discuss the most recent advancements in the toxicology of nanoparticles and particulate matter.