Evaluation of Greenness Profile Using Spectrophotometric and Multivariate Calibration Methods for Simultaneous Drug Identification in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine

Yaser Pashaei*

For the determination of atenolol, paracetamol, hydrochlorothiazide, and levofloxacin, two spectrophotometric techniques that are quick, affordable, and environmentally friendly were created. The newly created extended derivative ratio (EDR) is the first approach, and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares are the second approach (MCRALS). Atenolol, paracetamol, hydrochlorothiazide, and levofloxacin were each quantified using the extended derivative ratio amplitudes at 281.6, 237.6, 279.2, and 282.8 nm in the EDR method. Correlation constraint was used and a calibration model was created for the MCR-ALS approach. Seven mixtures from an external validation data set were employed, and various figures of merit including bias, standard error of prediction, and relative error of prediction were determined. The results were satisfactory. These two methods resulted in the use of an external validation data set made up of seven mixtures allowed for the calculation of various figures of merit, including bias, root mean square error of prediction, standard error of prediction, and relative error of prediction, with satisfactory results. Results from both techniques were comparable. The techniques were tested and used to identify the target analytes in dosage forms, spiked urine, and actual human urine. Following that, the obtained findings were statistically compared to the published methods, but no discernible difference was found in terms of accuracy or precision. Analytical Eco-Scale and the National Environmental Methodologies Index (NEMI) were also used to assess the greenness profile of the methods for the routine examination of the investigated medicines in dosage forms and human urine, the established methods can be utilised as a reliable, easy, and cost-effective substitute for the widely used chromatographic methods.